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I przez ptaka zdołał gigantów a ich a pesymistyczne nie eventually stop if it no longer receives attention. Classical conditioning is a form of learning which one stimulus, the conditioned stimulus, comes to signal the occurrence of a second stimulus, the unconditioned stimulus. Classical conditioning is when a dog learns to associate things its environment, or discovers some things just go together. A dog become afraid of rain through association with thunder and lightning, or it respond to the owner putting on a particular pair of shoes by fetching its leash. Classical conditioning is used dog training to help a dog make specific associations with a particular stimulus, particularly overcoming fear of people and situations. Non-associative learning is a change a response to a stimulus that does not involve associating the presented stimulus with another stimulus or event such as reward or punishment. Habituation is non-associative learning. example is where a dog that reacts excitedly to a door bell is subjected to repeated ringing without accompanying visitors, and stops reacting to the meaningless stimuli. It becomes habituated to the noise. On the other side of habituation is sensitization. Some dogs' reactions to the stimuli become stronger instead of them habituating to the repeated stimuli or event. Desensitization is the process of pairing positive experiences with object, person, or situation that causes fear or anxiety. Consistent exposure to the feared object conjunction with rewards allows the animal to become less stressed, thereby becoming desensitized the process. This type of training can be effective for dogs who are fearful of fireworks. Learned irrelevance is where dogs that are overexposed to a stimulus or cue learn the cue is irrelevant because the exposure has proven to be uneventful. a dog owner who continually says Sit, sit without response or consequence, inadvertently teaches the dog to ignore the cue. Learned helplessness occurs when a dog ceases to respond a situation where it has no option to avoid a negative event. For learned helplessness to occur, the event must be both traumatic and outside the dog's control. Family dogs that are exposed to unpredictable or uncontrolled punishment are at risk of developing disturbances associated with the learned helplessness disorder. Punishment which is poorly coordinated with identifiable avoidance cues or response options, such as when punishment takes place after the event, meet the criteria of inescapable trauma. Observational learning is the learning that occurs through observing the behavior of others. This form of learning does not need reinforcement to occur; instead, a model animal is required. While the model not be intentionally trying to instill any particular behavior, behaviors that are observed are remembered and imitated. The domestic dog is a social species and its social dependency makes it aware of the behavior of others, which contributes to its own behavior and learning abilities. There is, however, ongoing discussion about how much, and how, dogs can learn by interacting with each other and with people. The term observational learning encompasses several closely related concepts: allelomimetic behavior or mimicking where, for example, puppies follow or copy others of their kind; social facilitation where the presence of another dog causes increase the intensity of a behavior; and local enhancement which includes pieces of social facilitation, mimicking, and trial-and-error learning, but is different from true observational learning that the dog actively participates the behavior the presence of the other dog and or other environmental cues. Four necessary conditions for observational learning are: attention, retention, motivation, and production. That is, the dog must pay attention to the dog or person performing the modelled behavior; retain the information gathered about the behavior during the observation; be motivated to reproduce the behavior a time and place removed from the original; and finally, produce the behavior, or some reasonable facsimile thereof. Pups between the ages of 9 weeks who were permitted to observe their narcotics-detecting mothers at work generally proved more capable at learning the same skills at six months of age than control puppies the same age who were not previously allowed to watch their mothers working. A 2001 study recorded the behaviour of dogs detour tests, which a favorite toy or food was placed behind a V-shaped fence. The demonstration of the detour by humans significantly improved the dogs' performance the trials. The experiments showed that dogs are able to rely on information provided by human action when confronted with a new task. Significantly, they did not copy the exact path of the human demonstrator, but adopted the detour behavior shown by humans to reach their goal. A 1977 experiment by Adler and Adler found that puppies who watched other puppies learn to pull a food cart into their cages by attached ribbon proved considerably faster at the task when later given the opportunity themselves. At 38 days of age, the demonstrator puppies took average of 697 seconds to succeed, while the observers succeeded average of 9 seconds. Strictly following the model set out the Koehler Method of Dog Training, some 50 years later, the Koehler method continues to be taught both class and private training formats. The method is based the philosophy that a dog acts on its right to choose its actions. Koehler explained that a dog's learned behavior is act of choice based